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LOG IN. Blum, Hester. Bradley, Eliza. Eliza Bradley […]. Boston: James Walden, In Baepler Braudy, Leo. Colley, Linda. Captives: Britain, Empire and the World, London: Pimlico, Cowdery, Jonathan. American Captives in Tripoli, Or, Dr. Boston: Belcher and Armstrong, Davidson, Cathy N. New York: Oxford UP, Fabian, Ann. Berkeley: U. Field, James A. America and the Mediterranean World, Princeton, N. J: Princeton UP, Hunter, J. Before Novels. New York: W.

Norton, Peskin, Lawrence. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, Ray, William. Hester Blum. London: Rutgers, Troy, NY: Oliver Lyon, Auburn: Doubleday, Rojas, Martha. Sears, Christine.

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New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Slotkin, Richard. Middletown, Conn. Shaw, Elijah. Rochester, N. Thomson, Ann. New York: Brill, Tyler, Royall. Caleb Crain. New York: Modern Library, Weber, Max. White, Hayden. Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism. However, it features very little personal information about his time in Tripolitan captivity, which is why it is not discussed in this study.

Angles - Unstable states, mutable conditions The journal Unstable states, mutable conditions. From October to March , he worked as an assistant at the American Corner Innsbruck, an information platform that is anchored at the Department of American Studies at the University of Innsbruck and the U. S Embassy in Vienna. Contact: tobias. Varia section: varia.

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Abstract This study deals with early American narratives about North African captivity. Sommaire Haut de page. Historical Context 3 It seems that, once the ship had run aground, the crew of the USS Philadelphia was unable to get the ship afloat again and, following a short siege, captain Bainbridge surrendered to the aggressors without having suffered a single American casualty.

His professed goal is to reveal injustices within the US navy: Be assured, it shall be my business and delight, to expose, in the following pages, every act of cruelty, every abuse of authority, that I witnessed, during my continuance in the service of the United States. Ray 30 7 So even as he laments the harsh treatment which he and his comrades had received at the hands of the Tripolitans, he ultimately lays the blame for the situation endured by his comrades and by himself not on their captors, but to a large extent on their officers.

Cowdery and the other officers never went hungry, their movements were hardly restricted and they were even given the opportunity to do some sightseeing: Jan. Cowdery 10 The fact that this applied to officers, and that Cowdery did not think it worthwhile to mention the plight of the remaining crew, is a dimension that infuriated Ray. This is what Cowdery has to say on the matter: Nov.

Cowdery 14 The degree to which rank influenced not only the captivity itself, but also the reports of the captives, is remarkable. Ray, however, portrays this event differently: In fact, the Turks were so pusillanimous, that after our colours were struck, they dare not, for they did not attempt to come any nearer, until we sent a boat, and persuaded them that it was no farce, no illusion, assuring them that our frigate had in reality struck to one gun-boat, and entreated them to come and take possession of their lawful booty! Cowdery falls back on the stereotypical dichotomies between the supposedly uncivilized Eastern culture as opposed to the civilized West, as exemplified by his highlighting the infighting among the attackers once it came to the question of dividing up the booty: After the flag of the Philadelphia was struck, says the Doctor, and the officers and crew waiting the pleasure of their new masters, the Tripolitan chiefs collected their favourites, and, with drawn sabres, fell to cutting and slashing their own men who were stripping the Americans and plundering the ship.

Cowdery 16 Ray, while he also mention these attacks within the ranks of the Tripolitans, tends to depict them in a manner that is a lot less gruesome: It is true there was a sort of mutiny and clashing of arms amongst them; but for my part I never saw any hands amputated, nor do I believe there were any lives lost; for myself and a hundred others were in the ship much longer than the Doctor, and none of us ever saw or heard of this carnage amongst themselves.

Ray 17 Traditionally, in Europe and by extension, the American colonies , infighting within an army had been considered to constitute a category of extremely barbaric acts, clear evidence of a lack of civilizing progress. Consequently, most observers regarded the possibility of an invasion and colonisation of North Africa as being only a matter of time: This gradual and uneven transformation of ways of looking at the region and its inhabitants accompanies ever more insistent calls for an expedition against the corsairs, ending finally in demands for a conquest and then colonisation of Algeria.

Cowdery, for instance, writes: Sept. Cowdery 20 While Ray also mentions this prediction, there is a curious difference in his version, insofar as the priest is a clairvoyante, i. Consequently, he made a point of recounting events that highlight his patriotism and even heroism: Aug. Cowdery 25 The history of captivity narratives bears witness to numerous episodes of this sort, where the captive is the member of an honoured, sought-after profession. In addition to that, Cowdery explains that he was not even aware of the fact that there was a chance for his redemption: The Bashaw sent for me, and, agreeably to his orders, I took a seat by his side.

Ray 27 Ray makes it clear that he had a strong anti-authoritarian agenda. He starts his narrative with the following poem: […] Reader, lay prejudice aside, And let calm reason be your guide; If in the following, then, you find Things not so pleasing to your mind, And think them false, why, disbelieve them; Errors of weakness? Yet, when the need for ransoming subsided, trade and shipping between Denmark and Venice increased constantly, to become rather substantial in the second half of the eighteenth century. II, p. Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean…, op. Robert C. Magnus Ressel, Zwischen Sklavenkassen…, op.

Andrea Addobbati, Commercio Rischio Guerra. Il mercato delle assicurazioni marittime di Livorno , Rome, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, , p. Thomas, G. Abtheilung , Munich, Verlag der K. Akademie, , p. On this institution see Fn.

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II, Stuttgart, Cotta, , p. The meeting and cooperation of German merchant houses in Genoa, which was around certainly a strong trading place, remain to this day understudied. Lucia F.

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Sources and further literature on this case of fraud: Magnus Ressel, Zwischen Sklavenkassen…, op. National Archive The Hague, 1. On him: Johan E. Elias, De vroedschap van Amsterdam, ,Haarlem, Loosjes, , vol. On the foundation of the Danish Sklavenkasse, Jens O. Aarhundrede, Copenhagen, Wesmanns Skandinaviske Forsikringsfond, , p. Ludwig Beutin, Der deutsche Seehandel…, op. Bind Faaborg — Gersdorff, Copenhagen, Gyldendal, , p. Jahrhunderts, Berlin, Lukas Verlag, , p.

Jacob P.

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Johann Jacob Pommers, Memmingen, , p. On the decade-long activities of the Pommers in the ransoming: Magnus Ressel, Zwischen Sklavenkassen…, op. Richard T. Rapp, Industry and economic decline in seventeenth-century Venice, Cambridge Mass. Storia di Venezia, vol.

Merchants, commercial expansion and change in the spatial economy of the Low Countries c. In this sense: Ludwig Beutin, Der deutsche Seehandel…, op. It is not clear why the Hamburgers got access to the still by South Germans dominated Nazione, but in the first Hamburger became officially member: Henry Simonsfeld, Der Fondaco dei Tedeschi…, op. Jean Georgelin, Venise…, op. Jahrhundert, Stuttgart, Fischer, , p. On Brogh we do not know much. Dan Andersen, The Danish Flag…, op. This is the result from my ongoing research and shall be published in the future. Strong hints in this direction can already be found in: Ludwig Beutin, Der deutsche Seehandel…, op.

He wrote his dissertation thesis on the relations between Barbary corsairs and Northern Europeans in the early modern age with a specific focus on Denmark, the Netherlands and the Hanseatic cities. He has published mostly in the field of socio-economic, maritime and global history of the early modern age. Plan Introduction. Northern European ransoming via the Italian peninsula.

Venice as a mercantile and ransoming center in the eighteenth century. Introduction 1. For Sout The still most important historian of Venice and Venetian problem with Mediterranean corsairs, w An example of a Dutch company based in Livorno that did some ransoming for the Germans and Dutch Il mercato delle assicurazioni marittime di Livorno In contrast, the Dutch merchants in Venice concentrated more on the maritime trade: Maartje van The meeting and cooperation of German merchant houses in Genoa, which was around certainly This is indicated in the case of the Sephardim, when compared to their brethren in Northern Euro Sources and further literature on this case of fraud: Magnus Ressel, Zwischen Sklavenkassen…, op We have no clear proof of such losses, yet, it is clear that Broecke was in very active for Johann Jacob Pommers, Memmingen, It is not clear why the Hamburgers got access to the still by South Germans dominated Nazione, b Shipping and Trade, —, Unpublished P Merchants of Livorno may at times have been a bit problematic with regards to these special fund Strong hints i Notes 1.

Venice and the redemption of Northern European slaves (seventeenth and eighteenth centuries)

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